Friedrich Nietzsche background

Friedrich Nietzsche: Curiousity Life & Legacy, One Of The Insanely Great Minds In Philosophy

Friedrich Nietzsche Introduction

Friedrich Nietzsche was a philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic. He was a German. Many of his works have had a significant impact on Western philosophical thought and intellectual development in the fields of truth, morality, language, and aesthetics, as well as historical and cultural theory and nihilism.

Friedrich Nietzsche’s life and legacy

Nietzsche predicted the demise of traditional religion and philosophy, which he referred to as “the death of God.” However, there are also many who see Nietzsche as an anti-intellectual who advocated for a literary examination of the human condition rather than an attempt to discover truth and knowledge in the traditional sense.

Nietzsche, on the other hand, is said to have advocated a radical, naturalistic rethinking of human existence, knowledge, and morality in order to resist the prophesied spread of nihilism in his writings.

Both interpretations agree on one thing: that he proposed a strategy for “becoming what one is” through the cultivation of instincts and diverse cognitive capacities, a plan that demands a perpetual conflict with one’s psychological and intellectual heritages.

A human being who lives up to Nietzsche’s ideal is one who is self-aware and doesn’t place their faith in the supernatural, such as God or the soul.

However, this style of life should be maintained even in the face of a radical image of eternity that suggests the “eternal repetition” of all events. For others, Nietzsche developed a “will to power” theoretical framework in his cosmology. On the other hand, I believe that he isn’t very interested in developing a universal cosmology.

Many contemporary intellectual historians and philosophers are interested in the coherence of Nietzsche’s views, such as whether these views could all be taken together without contradiction, whether readers should discredit any particular view if proven to be incoherent or incompatible with others, and the like.

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Early life of Friedrich Nietzsche

Lutheranism held sway in Nietzsche’s household. Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, the father of Friedrich Nietzsche, was appointed pastor of Röcken by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who called him after him; his maternal grandfather was a village parson; his father, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, was named after him. Nietzsche was raised by his mother Franziska, his younger sister Elisabeth, their maternal grandmother, and two aunts after their father died in 1849 when he was five years old.

As a child, Nietzsche attended the exclusive preparatory school Domgymnasium in Naumburg on the Saale River, which was founded in 1850. Schulpforta, Germany’s most prestigious Protestant boarding school, accepted him in 1858. He succeeded in the classroom and obtained an exceptional classical education at the school.

Following his graduation in 1864, he enrolled at the University of Bonn to pursue a degree in theology and classics. Two semesters at the University of Bonn were a disappointment, mainly due to bitter arguments between Otto Jahn and Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, his two top classical instructors. The German Romantic composer Robert Schumann was a major influence on many of Nietzsche’s writings as he sought solace in music. In 1865, he moved to Leipzig to join Ritschl, who had acquired a position at the university at the time.

Ritschl was instrumental in Nietzsche’s success in Leipzig, where he was taught by Ritschl. When he published in Ritschl’s periodical, Rheinisches Museum (“Rhenish Museum”), he was the only student to ever do so. As an artillery unit cavalryman, he was injured while mounting a horse in March 1868, and he returned to Leipzig to continue his studies in October of that year while on extended sick leave from the military. Nietzsche explored Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy, met Richard Wagner and formed a lasting connection with fellow classical scholar Erwin Rohde during his time in Leipzig.

The life of Friedrich Nietzsche at the University of Basel

Nietzsche was suggested by Ritschl for a professorship in ancient philology in Basel, Switzerland, in 1869, with exceptional acclaim. In spite of the fact that Ritschl had not finished either his Ph.D. thesis or the extra dissertation required for a German degree, he informed the University of Basel that he had never seen someone like Nietzsche in his 40 years of teaching and that his talents were unbounded.

Upon receiving his doctorate in ancient philology from the University of Basel in 1869, he was appointed extraordinary professor of classics at Leipzig University. Nietzsche was raised to the rank of regular professor the following year.

After the Franco-German War broke out in August 1870, Nietzsche was granted a leave of absence to serve as a volunteer medical orderly. He caught dysentery and diphtheria within a month after accompanying a transfer of injured, both of which permanently harmed his health.

Basel returned to a full teaching schedule in October; nevertheless, he had already applied for the empty chair of philosophy and nominated Rohde as the successor, all to no effect, in 1871, when his health began to deteriorate.

Nietzsche’s first work

Nietzsche’s ambiguous connection with Wagner blossomed during those early Basel years, and he took advantage of any opportunity to pay a visit to Richard and his wife, Cosima. However, Wagner’s increasing use of Christian themes, such as in Parsifal (1882), coupled with Wagner’s chauvinism and anti-Semitism, proved to be too much for Nietzsche to endure; he eventually left Wagner. The rift between the two men was irreparable by 1878.

The publication of Nietzsche’s first work, Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik (1872), signalled his break with traditional academia. Greek tragedy, according to this text, originated from the union of two opposing forces—Apollonian and Dionysian—representing restraint and harmony as well as untamed passion.

He went on to say that Socratic logic and optimism killed Greek tragedy. Finally, in the book’s final ten sections, the author writes a love song to Wagner’s operatic music and the rebirth of tragedy from it. After initially being met with stony silence, those who mistake it for a typical work of classical knowledge erupted in a fury. F.M. Cornford, a British classicalist, described it as “a work of great creative insight, which left the scholarship of a generation toiling in the rear” in his review in 1912. To this day, it is considered a classic in the history of art and aesthetics.

Nietzsche requested and received a sick vacation in 1877, and in 1878 his aphoristic Menschliches, Allzumenschliches (Human, All-Too-Human), appeared, which he shared with his sister and a friend. As his health declined, he was granted a six-year pension of 3,000 Swiss francs and quit his professorship on June 14, 1879.

The life of Friedrich Nietzsche from 1879 to 1889

It is unlikely that Nietzsche’s life had any fundamental value apart from the books he authored between 1879 and 1889. He spent most of his time in boarding homes in Switzerland, the French Riviera, and Italy, where he was confined to a life of loneliness and pain.

All That Said Zarathustra (Thus Said Zarathustra), Nietzsche’s literary and philosophical masterpiece in biblical-narrative style, was published in four parts between 1883 and 1885. The last of which was a private printing at his own expense. It didn’t get the recognition it deserved like most of his other works. In 1886, he published Jenseits von Gut und Böse (Beyond Good and Evil), and in 1887, he published Zur Genealogie der Moral (On the Genealogy of Morals), both of which failed to find a readership.

1888 was Nietzsche’s most productive year of lucidity. Der Fall Wagner (The Case of Wagner), Die Götzen-Dämmerung (Twilight of the Idols), Der Antichrist (The Antichrist), Nietzsche contra Wagner, and Ecce Homo, a reflection on his own works and significance were all written by him. When The Antichrist and Nietzsche contra Wagner were finally released in 1895, they were mistaken for the first volume of The Will to Power. Ecce Homo was not published until 1908, a full two decades after it had been written, despite its importance.

The philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche

Writings by Friedrich Nietzsche can be divided into three distinct periods. Schopenhauer and Wagner’s influence can be seen in early works, such as The Birth of Tragedy and the four Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen. Human, All-Too-Human up to The Gay Science recalls the French aphorist’s tradition.

Reason and science are extolled, literary styles are experimented with, and Nietzsche’s freedom from Romanticism is expressed. The Gay Science was the beginning of Nietzsche’s mature philosophy.

The focus of Friedrich Nietzsche in the latter half of his life

At the end of his life, Nietzsche was concerned with the origin and function of values in human existence. If, as he argued, life has neither intrinsic value nor lacks it, and yet it is constantly appraised, such judgments can be productively interpreted as indicators of the evaluator’s situation. The austere ideal of Western philosophy, religion, and morality was of particular interest to him; thus, he pursued an in-depth investigation and appraisal of these key cultural norms.

The association between pain and suffering with religion

The austere ideal is born when pain is elevated to a level of significance that transcends all others. He said that the Judeo-Christian tradition made the pain bearable by seeing it as God’s will and an opportunity for redemption. Thus, Christianity’s success can be attributed to the belief that each person’s life and death had a cosmic meaning, which in turn led to the rise of Christianity.

Similar to the ascetic ideals of traditional philosophy, which prioritized soul over body and senses and duty over desire, traditional philosophy emphasized truth over appearance and the eternal rather than the temporary.

Religions such as Christianity and philosophy both held up the possibility of salvation for those who were willing to turn from their sins. The implicit but powerfully driving premise that existence necessitates explanation, justification, or atonement was common to traditional religion and philosophy. Both dismissed the real world in favor of a mythical, “genuine” one. Both can be interpreted as signs of a life in decline or crisis.

Nietzsche’s critique of traditional morality

His critique of traditional morality was based on the “master and slave” morality typology that he developed. “Good” and “bad,” as well as “evil,” according to Nietzsche’s analysis of the word’s origins in Germanic etymology, originally served as a nonmoral contrast between those who were well-off and those who were downtrodden, or slaves and masters respectively.

When slaves retaliated against their masters, they turned their master’s virtues into their own vices. It was believed that the humble would inherit the earth if the powerful were chosen, the “good.” Pride turned to become a vice. It was no longer about winning at all costs but rather about putting others’ needs ahead of your own. Slave morality’s claim to be the only real morality was a key factor in its success.

Philosophical and religious ethics both require an insistence on absoluteness. When it comes to master and slave morality, Nietzsche provided a historical timeline of their development but insisted it was a universal typology.

Friedrich Nietzsche‘s concept of nihilism

Nietzsche coined the term “nihilism” to express the austere ideal’s depreciation of the ultimate values. According to him, this period was one of “passive necessitism,” or an era in which theological and philosophical absolutes had not yet been dissolved by the rise of positivism in the 19th century. When conceptual and theological grounds for traditional morality are wiped out, the only thing that will remain is a pervasive sense of purposelessness and meaninglessness.

The triumph of nihilism is the triumph of meaninglessness. Nietzsche, on the other hand, believed that most people would reject the ascetic ideal and the underlying meaninglessness of existence and would instead seek to substitute absolutes in order to give life purpose. He saw the rise of nationalism in his time as a kind of frightening surrogate deity in which the nation-state would be elevated to a transcendental status. It was just a matter of time before absolute ideology was firmly rooted in the nation-state, just as it had been in philosophy and religion from ancient times.

Under the flags of universal brotherhood, democracy, and socialism, the massacre of opponents and the conquest of the world would take place. While Nietzsche’s foresight was particularly painful in this instance, the subsequent appropriation of his ideas was particularly repulsive. During World War I, German soldiers carried Thus Spoke Zarathustra and the Gospel of John in their rucksacks as required reading. It’s hard to say which author was more vulnerable as a result of that act.

Nietzsche’s perspectivism

Even though Nietzsche considered his writings to be a war against nihilism, he also established novel theses, such as perspectivism, the will to power, endless recurrence, and the superman, which have garnered a great deal of attention.

Knowledge is always perspectival, there are no immaculate perceptions, and knowledge from no point of view is as illogical as seeing without a particular vantage point. Perspectivism is a concept. Another problem with perspectivism is that it does not allow for an all-inclusive perspective, which would make reality accessible as it is in itself. The idea of viewing anything from every angle available at the same time is as illogical as the concept of an all-inclusive perspective.

Relativism and skepticism have been associated with Nietzsche’s perspectivism in the past. But it begs the question of how one may comprehend Nietzsche’s own ideas, such as the idea that the main values of the common heritage are supported by an ascetical ideal. Is this statement true in all cases or just select ones? The question of whether perspectivism may be consistently maintained without self-contradiction may also be raised. Perspectivism must presumably hold an absolute, nonperspectival meaning. A great deal of fruitful Nietzsche criticism and valuable work in the theory of knowledge has resulted from such concerns.

The will to power

When Nietzsche spoke of “will to power,” he meant a desire for expansion and long-term survival. It is Nietzsche’s belief “that all the greatest values of mankind lack this will—those values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names.” This concept provides another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal. In other words, the numerous guises worn by a weak will to power include classical philosophy, religion, and morality.

When it comes to Western ideals, the austere ideal promotes the idea that life is a constant source of sorrow and misery. To give Nietzsche credit for inventing a new metaphysics based on his concept of “the will to power,” some have attempted to extrapolate it beyond human life and include things like organic and inorganic matter as well. His published works do not support these interpretations at all.

According to Thus Spoke Zarathustra’s idea of perpetual recurrence, “How well inclined would a person have to become to himself and life” in order for them to seek nothing more than the endless repetition of each and every moment without alteration. Probably most individuals would find such an idea devastating because they should always be able to choose the everlasting repetition of their life in an edited version rather than crave nothing more fiercely than the perpetual recurrence of each of its tragedies.

Superhumans (Übermensch), Nietzsche believes, would be able to accept the recurrence of events without self-deception or avoidance. This person would be more distinct from the average human being than the distance between man and ape. Commentators are still debating whether the person who embraces endless recurrence has unique character features.

Table of Contents

Friedrich Nietzsche’s life and legacy. 1

Early life of Friedrich Nietzsche. 1

The life of Friedrich Nietzsche at the University of Basel 2

The life of Friedrich Nietzsche from 1879 to 1889. 2

The philosophy of Nietzsche. 3

The focus of Nietzsche in the latter half of his life. 3

The association between pain and suffering with religion. 3

Nietzsche’s critique of traditional morality. 3

The concept of nihilism.. 4

Nietzsche’s perspectivism.. 4

The will to power 4

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